The Disappearing Male Studies Show Rise In Birth Defects, Infertility Among Men Part 1

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Sonja Puzic
Windsor Star
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Are males becoming an endangered species?
That’s the question scientists and researchers have been pondering since alarming trends in male fertility rates, birth defects and disorders began emerging around the world.

More and more boys are being born with genital defects and are suffering from learning disabilities, autism and Tourette’s syndrome, among other disorders.
Male infertility rates are on the rise and the quality of an average man’s sperm is declining, according to some studies.

But perhaps the most disconcerting of all trends is the growing gender imbalance in many parts of heavily industrialized nations, where the births of baby boys have been declining for many years.
What many scientists are calling the most important — and least publicized — issue surrounding the future of the human race will be highlighted in a CBC documentary that features two Windsor researchers who’ve studied the phenomenon.

Titled The Disappearing Male and premiering tonight at 9 on CBC-TV, the documentary includes interviews with Jim Brophy and Margaret Keith, adjunct sociology professors at the University of Windsor.

They have been studying the decline in the birth of male children in the Aamjiwnaang First Nation community located next to the infamous Chemical Valley, Canada’s largest concentration of petrochemical plants, near Sarnia.

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WiFi in schools puts children at real risk

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We at Mast Sanity are campaigning for WiFi to be removed from schools pending proof of safety which has never been shown.

On the contrary, much of the scientific evidence, and there are thousands of papers on microwave radiation, point to harmful effects such as DNA damage and cancers in the medium term.
To put WiFi in schools is simply unacceptable and unethical.
We already know what the Government’s ‘research’ on WiFi in schools will say.

We already know the exposures are similar to being in the main beam from a phone mast as we have already measured them. It does not take two years and £300,000 of taxpayers money.
The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines do not protect the public from anything but heating in the short term. They do not protect against any other effects from constant exposure.

At a recent conference in London the head of the Russian equivalent organisation, Prof Grigoriev, said the guidelines are out of date and the safety of the future generations is not assured.
The Health Protection Agency will merely compare their results with these out of date guidelines and say that WiFi is fine.

Meanwhile, we have reports of teachers suffering effects such as migraines from WiFi exposure.
No one knows what the children are suffering as no one has done a health survey and no one will. http://www.danger911.com

Sarah Wright

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What is the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) , and how can people use it to buy cell phones? Part 4

FCC Regulations
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The FCC defines a portable device as one that is normally used with its antenna within 20 cm of the body of the user. A handheld radio transmitter, such as a cellular telephone, is an example of such a device, and local SAR determinations are required, since its energy is absorbed in a small area of the body, usually the head. It is not meaningful to determine the power density at the head, as would be applicable for transmissions from an antenna that is farther away from the body. The FCC requires that many handheld radios meet the safety requirement that the SAR must be less than 1.6 W/kg in any one gram of tissue. It is assumed that not all cellular telephone users will be informed about RF safety, so the General Population limit is applied. It is acceptable to either measure absorption in a phantom head, or to perform a computer model of absorption, using one-gram regions of tissue in both cases.

The FCC has exempted amateur handheld transmitters from testing for compliance with SAR limits. There are several reasons for this. One is that hams are assumed to be in the controlled population, and the acceptable peak localized SAR of 8 W/kg is higher than a handheld transmitter would normally be expected to cause. Also, unlike cellular telephones, which transmit continuously when in use, an HT is a “Push-to-Talk” device, that only transmits when the ham is speaking.

The Cell Phone Debate

As the question of cell phone safety continues to be argued in the general society, we, as hams, cannot sit back and be spectators. Many of the same issues that affect cell phone users also affect us. With regard to exposure limits, the FCC considers us to be part of the informed population. We need to understand as much as possible about the issues affecting safe exposure. When using our H-Ts, we need to know why they were exempted from testing and operate accordingly. Since the exemption was based in part on the assumption of a relatively low duty cycle, we should avoid holding the PTT button and chatting nonstop for six minutes at a time. Above all, let’s strive to operate safely and to understand how and why we are doing so.

Editor’s note: Greg Lapin, N9GL, started working in the RF safety world after spending many years first studying cardiac function imaging and then brain tumor kinetics. He serves as chairman of the ARRL RF safety Committee and as a member of the IEEE Committee on Man and Radiation. A former professor of Biomedical Engineering and Neurology at Northwestern University, Lapin now works as a consulting professional engineer in the electronics industry. He was first licensed while a teenager in 1969 and continues to be fascinated by virtually all aspects of Amateur Radio. One of his many interests is electronic design, and he is the author of Chapter 8, “Analog Signal Theory and Components” in The ARRL Handbook for Radio Amateurs. His non-ham interests include making things grow in his garden and serving as commissioner of the local children’s softball league. At other times–when he is not working or helping his kids with their homework–you might find him
with the local emergency services agency, climbing his tower, building a new QRP rig, playing with his APRS setup, responding to QSL cards, going off on a DXpedition, or trying to get that “new one.” You can reach him by email at g.lapin@ieee.org.

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What is the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) , and how can people use it to buy cell phones? Part 3

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SAR is measured in different ways that have applicability to the mechanisms that excessive RF absorption can harm tissue. Whole-Body SAR deals with the thermal load of the body. Like a fever, whole body heating deals with the addition of heat to the body that must be removed.

Often, the choice of SAR characterization has been based on limitations of the ability to calculate or measure detailed SAR. In the early days of electromagnetic research, laboratories were capable only of determining the total amount of energy that was absorbed by the tissue. After dividing by body weight, whole-body SAR was the result. Many studies were performed to look for any deleterious effects and relate them to a whole-body SAR dose. Later, as technology improved, making it feasible to both measure and model SAR with higher spatial resolution, localized SAR was used in many exposure situations. The smallest region of tissue for which localized SAR is defined is currently one gram (approximately a cube measuring one cm (0.4 inches) on each side). This resolution was chosen in the early 1990s, in part due to the constraints of the available technology at the time. As computers continue to become more powerful, the minimum resolution can continue to
drop if deemed necessary.

When RF exposure is localized to a certain area in the body, whole-body SAR can be misleading. A very high local SAR can appear to be much lower when averaged over the entire body. For example, consider a focused beam of RF energy that is absorbed in 100 g (3.5 oz), of brain tissue (a cube measuring approximately 5 cm (2 inches) on each side) with an SAR of 280 W/kg. If this were the only place that RF is absorbed in the body, the equivalent whole-body SAR for a 70-kg (150-lb), person would be 0.4 W/kg. Even though 280 W/kg is a very high level of absorption, one that approaches levels attained in a microwave oven, the whole-body equivalent value is deceptively small, and within guidelines for safety. Clearly, it is not correct to apply whole-body SAR calculations in every exposure situation. In developing the ANSI/IEEE C95.1-1992 safety standard, this was taken into account by specifying a maximum whole-body SAR as 0.4 W/kg, or a maximum localized
(averaged over any 1 gram (0.04 oz) cube of tissue) peak SAR of 8 W/kg. Again, these values are for controlled exposure. General population limits are one fifth of these. The safety standard also takes into account that some tissues are more sensitive than others, and peak SAR can be as high as 20 W/kg (4 W/kg for general population) averaged over any 10 gram cube of tissue in the hands and feet.

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What is the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) , and how can people use it to buy cell phones? Part 2

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Unlike light, however, the wavelength of RF energy is usually larger than, or about the same size as, many of the objects that it interacts with. The wavelength of red light is 0.00007 cm (0.00003 inches). In comparison, the wavelengths of RF frequencies most commonly used by hams, 1.8 MHz to 460 MHz, vary from 171 meters (562 feet) to 65 cm (26 inches). This introduces resonance effects between the energy and human tissue. If an object is equal in size to one wavelength, or certain fractions of a wavelength (like one half or one quarter of a wavelength) it is likely to be resonant to that energy. When a resonance exists, the object absorbs more energy and reflects or passes less.

Likewise, when there is no resonance, much less energy is absorbed; most of it either passes through the tissue or is reflected. Thus, incident power density does not necessarily indicate how much of the energy gets absorbed in tissue. A different measure, that indicates
absorption, has been introduced: Specific Absorption Rate, or SAR, is measured in watts/kg or milliwatts/g of matter (1 W/kg = 1 mW/g). For a given volume of tissue, the SAR indicates the average rate at which energy is absorbed for each kilogram, or gram, of tissue weight.

The various RF safety standards, such as ANSI/IEEE C95.1-1992 and NCRP Report 86, base acceptable exposure limits on SAR values that have been determined to be safe. The limits are based on analysis of several decades of scientific study. Due to resonance effects, the acceptable exposure, expressed in power-density, differs with frequency in order to realize a consistent limit of SAR (the Maximum Permissible Exposure, or MPE, limits that follow are for controlled exposure. Similar relationships exist for general population limits). It is easy to see how the body absorbs very little energy in the 160 meter band and, as such, the MPE is relatively high (100 mW/cm2). As frequency increases, wavelength approaches dimensions of the human body and its parts. This is reflected in the MPE limits by a decreasing function with increasing frequency (900/f2 mW/cm2) from 3 to 30 MHz. At VHF frequencies, the wavelengths are very close to body dimensions, resonance is
high, absorption increases, and the MPE limits are at their minimum value (1 mW/cm2). As frequencies increase into the UHF region, wavelengths become smaller than the body and MPE limits correspondingly increase as frequency increases (f/300 mW/cm2). In the microwave region, the wavelengths are very small and most absorption occurs near the surface of the body. The decrease of resonance effects at these frequencies causes the MPE to level off (5 mW/cm2). This complicated set of relationships is designed to keep SAR below the accepted safe level of 0.8 W/kg whole body absorption.

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What is the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) , and how can people use it to buy cell phones? Part 1

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Cellular telephone makers soon will offer consumer information on Specific Absorption Rate or SAR. What is the SAR, and how can people use it? The cellular telephone industry has announced that it will present consumers with the Specific Absorption Rates, or SARs, measured or calculated from its phones. SAR is also the basis of the Maximum Permissible Exposure–or MPE–limits with which hams must comply. What is the SAR and how can people use it?

Why is it needed? Radio waves and light waves are both made up of electromagnetic energy, with different frequencies. Microwaves are radio waves with smaller wavelengths, typically less than 30 cm (one foot). In many ways, all electromagnetic waves have the same behavior when they interact with matter. Many aspects of the behavior of radio waves can be demonstrated with light, which may be easier to understand since we can visualize it. The amount of energy that impinges on an object depends on the size of the object and how much the energy has spread since leaving the antenna.

To take this additional factor into account, a new unit of measurement is introduced, power density, or power per unit of area, measured in watts/m2 or millwatts/cm2 (10 W/m2 = 1 mW/cm2). The ways that RF energy affects human tissue are not simply related to the power density of the signal in the air. The key is how much energy is absorbed in tissue, and particularly in sensitive tissues (internal organs tend to be sensitive to external energy while skin tends to be very resilient). As with light, RF energy can do three things when it interacts with an object: it can pass through, it can be reflected, or it can be absorbed.

Usually, interaction with tissue is a combination of all three of these things. Consider the sun shining on the water in a swimming pool. Some of the light reflects off the water surface and some of it passes through, illuminating the bottom of the pool. During the course of the day, the water in the pool gets warmer, indicating that some of the sunlight was absorbed and converted to heat.

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Keep your cell phones off in hospitals: Experts

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Islamabad: Using cellular phones near hospital beds and critical care medical equipments can lead to electromagnetic interference, leading to immediate malfunctioning or misreading of the medical gadgets and endangering the lives of the patients.

Critical care equipment is vulnerable to electromagnetic interference posed by new age cellular phones. It can disrupt pacemakers, switch off ventilators and cause a lot of problems, Health News reported. Other malfunctions attributed to electromagnetic interference include complete stops with no alarms in syringe pumps and incorrect pulsing by an external pacemaker. To assess the potential danger of using mobile phones in hospitals, researcher recorded nearly 50 incidents of electromagnetic interference from cell phone use in hospitals and classified 75 per cent of them as significant or hazardous.

On testing 61 different medical devices, it was found that most of the incidents stemmed from the latest General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) signal, a new-generation technology that also allows wireless Internet access. Researcher found that 300 tests over a five-month period turned up no noticeable interference with important hospital equipment due to regular mobile phone use. The results underline the importance of keeping mobile phones switched off in hospitals.
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Cell-phone Safety Topic of Public-policy Forum

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Wireless: Science, Public Policy and the BioInitiative Report forum will address the safety of cell phones on Monday, November 10, from 9:30 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. in Wilson Auditorium, Dickinson Hall, Metropolitan Campus.
Experts in the field will discuss the science of wireless exposure and biological effects in the morning session and public policy for wireless exposure in the afternoon.
Participants include Devra Davis, director of the world’s first Center for Environmental Oncology, Cancer Institute and professor of epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, both at the University of Pittsburgh, Pa.; and lead author of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change — the group awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007 with the former vice president Al Gore; David Carpenter, director, Institute for Health and the Environment, University at Albany, State University of New York, and co-author of the BioInitiative Report http://www.bioinitiative.org and author of Biological Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields; Martin Blank, associate professor of physiology and cellular biophysics at Columbia University, past president of the Bioelectromagnetics Society and one of the world’s most published scientists in bioelectromagnetics; and Magda Havas, professor of environmental resources at Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada, where she teaches and does research on the biological effects of electromagnetic fields, dirty electricity, ground current, radio frequency radiation and electrical hypersensitivity.
Other presenters are James Burch, assistant professor of epidemiology and biostatistics at the Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia; Janet Newton, president of The EMR (Electromagnetic Radiation) Policy Institute, Marshfield, Va., who for 10 years has worked with organizations that have maintained a regular profile at key government agencies with a stake in the environmental effects of non-ionizing radiation; Louis Slesin, founder, editor and publisher of Microwave News, a bimonthly newsletter on the biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation with special emphasis on power lines and cellular phones; Deborah Carney, vice president of The EMR Policy Institute and attorney for Canyon Area Residents, for the Environment in Lookout Mountain, Colo., on the interference and biological effects of electromagnetic radiation; and Whitney North Seymour, Jr., whose legal career has included public-interest work with a particular focus on environmental law, having co-founded the Natural Resources Defense Council.
This free event is offered as a public service and is co-produced by FDU’s WFDU (FM) and The EMR Policy Institute. Reservations are required through wfdu891@yahoo.com. For more information go to http://www.wfdu.fm. http://www.emfnews.org/headset.html
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Blood-brain barrier permeability and nerve cell damage in rat brain 14 and 28 days after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones.

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Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden. Jacob.Eberhardt@med.lu.se
We investigated the effects of global system for mobile communication (GSM) microwave exposure on the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and signs of neuronal damage in rats using a real GSM programmable mobile phone in the 900 MHz band. Ninety-six non-anaesthetized rats were either exposed to microwaves or sham exposed in TEM-cells for 2 h at specific absorption rates of average whole-body Specific Absorption Rates (SAR) of 0.12, 1.2, 12, or 120 mW/kg. The rats were sacrificed after a recovery time of either 14 or 28 d, following exposure and the extravazation of albumin, its uptake into neurons, and occurrence of damaged neurons was assessed. Albumin extravazation and also its uptake into neurons was seen to be enhanced after 14 d (Kruskal Wallis test: p = 0.02 and 0.002, respectively), but not after a 28 d recovery period. The occurrence of dark neurons in the rat brains, on the other hand, was enhanced later, after 28 d (p = 0.02). Furthermore, in the 28-d brain samples, neuronal albumin uptake was significantly correlated to occurrence of damaged neurons
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Understanding Specific Absorption Ration ( Sar) Levels and Mobile Phone Radiation Part 1

http://www.sarvalues.com/measuring-sar.html
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Accurate RF dosimetry measurements in simulated humans are difficult to perform, yet they are essential in establishing the compliance of the phone with the relevant compliance standards. The new harmonized SAR test method adopted by CENELEC and IEEE will ensure that the measurement regimes used to test compliance with either the ICNIRP or IEEE exposure standards are largely the same. The following provides only an outline of the complicated process used in measuring the SAR values.
Essentially the SAR measurement system comprises a phantom human head, specially developed liquids, a robot fitted with a measurement probe, and a mobile phone powered up to its maximum certified power level.

The Phantom

In order to achieve a measure of SAR that will include all types of people, a phantom has been produced that is based upon the dimensions of a large adult male head (it has been shown that a larger head is exposed to a higher SAR) as measured on US Army personnel. This phantom has been constructed with compressed thin ears to simulate users with small ears. In addition – right and left model heads are used to ensure that the different exposure areas caused by the asymmetric location of the antenna in many phones are being measured. Cell Tower Protection

The Liquid

The phantom is filled with a liquid that correlates with the dielectric properties of human head tissue.The dielectric properties of ‘head tissue’ have been calculated taking into account the properties of human brain tissue and the matching effects of the outer tissue layers of the head (e.g., skin and skull) to provide a conservative overestimate of the values. Different ‘recipes’ are used for tests on different frequencies.
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