5. Low Power Transmission Lines Radiation
In some countries, like i.e. Greece, there are low power transmission lines installed close to homes or apartments in larger buildings.
In the picture on the right, you can observe such a case. There are three conductor low voltage transmission lines (230 V each) with no external grounding cover, together with a neutral and a ground conductor.
In the next picture on the left, I present you a near field FDTD simulation of one only line located close to a building in order to find out a) how the radiated ELF waves propagate inside it and b) to check if the values of calculated electric and magnetic field are under the safety limits.
The result is:
• EM pollution propagates inside the building and under the ground.
• The magnetic field does not change significantly with the distance from line.
• The typical safety magnetic field limit of 500 A/m is overpassed in the area inside all the building and even behind it.
Definitely Greece and countries which use same technology of transmission lines in their power transmission network have problem of electromagnetic pollution as many lines exist in the same area.
In other countries, like i.e. UK, power lines are installed underground and cables with external grounding are used. Even in this case, the quality of grounding of the used cables is still quotable and electromagnetic fields can possibly measured over the ground.
6. High Power Transmission Lines Radiation
There is a lot of questioning worldwide about what are the biological effects of electrosmog produced by the high power transmission lines and what the minimum safety distance of pylons from houses is.
In some countries, i.e. in Greece, the safety distance is limited to 300 m.
In the picture on the right, a 7 lines pylon is shown. It has six double high power transmission lines and one line used for grounding on the top.
In the above picture on the left, I present you the results of a near field FDTD simulation of one only high power transmission line 7 kV, 60 Hz at 70 m distance from a building, to find out:
1. how the radiated ELF waves propagate inside it and under the ground and
2. if the received values of electric and magnetic field are under the safety limits.
The result is:
• The electromagnetic pollution propagates over the mentioned limit of 300 m.
• The magnetic field found at 300 m is 4420 A/m. This values is much larger than the safety limit of 500 A/m.
• The value of the electric field is smaller than the safety limit of 10 kV/m in 300 m. I expect that the limit will be overpassed for a transmission line with voltage higher than 10 kV.
• The electromagnetic pollution propagates under the ground in deeper than 50 m.
• The electromagnetic pollution propagates inside the building and even behind it.
• A suggested safety limit of 300 m or more is meaningless as more phenomena exist which contribute to electromagnetic pollution. Other criteria should be used to estimate safety areas.
This calculation is a typical example to help you to understand further the electromagnetic pollution because of an electric power distribution network using aerial cables.
7. Low power lamps as Plasma Antennas
Common light lamps used at homes and offices are recommended by many mass media and other organizations worldwide to be substituted with others of lower power consumption, which use ionized gas to produce light. In the picture on the left, we observe such kind of lamps already known to everybody.
This kind of lamps has in real higher light efficacy than the older ones which use heating coil, but they have other problems.
They behave like plasma antennas and radiate except visible light an extra electromagnetic radiation at frequency 10 – 20 kHz. This non-useful radiation, which contributes to electromagnetic pollution is ought to be from the way by which these lamps produce the “useful” for us light (see the lower picture on the left).
In these lamps, the ionized atoms of Argon gas inside it vibrate with frequency 10-20 kHz, like the electrons inside a common metallic antenna. This vibrated gas excites the atoms on the outer coated surface of the lamp and visible light is produced. The same time the ionized Argon atoms acceleration and deceleration produces an elecromagnetic radiation, the one which contributes to the electromagnetic pollution. As these lamps work for many hours inside every home etc., the problem exists.
Plasma antennas are developed for years and are used in military applications etc. as they can have stealth and jamming resistant behavior.
The level of radiation and relative characteristics should be clearly written on the surface of the lamps with lower power consumption as for the usual TV receivers.
Wodonga Victoria Australia
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