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      Cell Tower Radiation and Protection Safety standards and licensing Part 1

WiFi Radiation Protection

Bluetooth Radiation Dangers

In order to protect the population living around base stations and users of mobile handsets, governments and regulatory bodies adopt safety standards, which translate to limits on exposure levels below a certain value. There are many proposed national and international standards, but that of the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) is the most respected one, and has been adopted so far by more than 80 countries. For radio stations, ICNIRP proposes two safety levels: one for occupational exposure, another one for the general population. Currently there are efforts underway to harmonise the different standards in existence.

Radio base licensing procedures have been established in the majority of urban spaces regulated either at municipal/county, provincial/state or national level. Mobile telephone service providers are, in many regions, required to obtain construction licenses, provide certification of antenna emission levels and assure compliance to ICNIRP standards and/or to other environmental legislation.

Many governmental bodies also require that competing telecommunication companies try to achieve sharing of towers so as to decrease environmental and cosmetic impact. This issue is an influential factor of rejection of installation of new antennas and towers in communities.

The safety standards in the U.S. are set by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The FCC has based its standards primarily on those standards established by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), specifically Subcommittee 4 of the "International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety".
[edit] Evolution of safety standards

The following is a brief summary of the wireless safety standards, which have become stricter over time.

* 1966: The ANSI C95.1 standard adopted the standard of 10 mW/cm2 (10,000 μW/cm2) based on thermal effects.
* 1982: The IEEE recommended further lowering this limit to 1 mW/cm2 (1,000 μW/cm2 or 10 W/m2) for certain frequencies in 1982, which became a standard ten years later in 1992 (see below).
* 1986: The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) recommended the exposure limit of 580 μW/cm2.
* 1992: The ANSI/IEEE C95.1-1992 standard based on thermal effects used the 1 mW/cm2 (1,000 μW/cm2) safety limit. The United States Environmental Protection Agency‎ called this revised standard "seriously flawed", partly for failing to consider non-thermal effects, and called for the FCC to adopt the 1986 NCRP standard which was five times stricter. * 1996: The FCC updated to the standard of 580 μW/cm2 over any 30-minute period for the 869 MHz, while still using 1 mW/cm2 (1,000 μW/cm2) for PCS frequencies (1850-1990 MHz).[72]
* 1998: The ICNIRP standard uses the limit of 450 μW/cm2 at 900 MHz, and 950 μW/cm2 at 1900 MHz. The limit is frequency dependent.

More stringent standards

A few nations have set safety limits orders of magnitude lower than the ICNIRP limits.[73] A resolution adopted at a conference in Salzburg in 2000 called a limit of 0.1 μW/cm2 (10,000 times lower than ICNIRP) for "…pulse modulated high-frequency facilities such as GSM base stations…".

In September 2008, the European Parliament adopted a resolution on the mid-term review of the European Environment and Health Action Plan 2004-2010. The resolution covered several topic areas, such as Mental Health and Global Warming, and included under the topic "Dangers of new technologies" the statement "… that the limits on exposure to electromagnetic fields which have been set for the general public are obsolete."

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